Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Metamorphic Facies Defined and Explained

Metamorphic Facies Defined and Explained As metamorphic rocks change under heat and pressure, their ingredients recombine into new minerals that are suited to the conditions. The concept of metamorphic facies is a systematic way to look at the mineral assemblages in rocks and determine a potential range of pressure and temperature (P/T) conditions that were present when they formed.   It should be noted that metamorphic facies are different than sedimentary facies, which include the environmental conditions present during deposition. Sedimentary facies can be further divided into lithofacies, which focus on a rocks physical characteristics, and biofacies, which focus on the paleontological attributes (fossils).   Seven MetamorphicFacies There are seven widely recognized metamorphic facies, ranging from the zeolite facies at low P and T to eclogite at very high P and T. Geologists determine a facies in the lab after examining many specimens under the microscope and doing bulk chemistry analyses. Metamorphic facies is not obvious in a given field specimen. To sum up, a metamorphic facies is the set of minerals found in a rock of a given composition. That mineral suite is taken as a sign of the pressure and temperature that made it. Here are the typical minerals in rocks that are derived from sediments. That is, these will be found in slate, schist and gneiss. The minerals shown in parentheses are optional and dont always appear, but they can be essential for identifying a facies. Zeolite facies: illite/phengite chlorite quartz (kaolinite, paragonite)Prehnite-pumpellyite facies: phengite chlorite quartz (pyrophyllite, paragonite, alkali feldspar, stilpnomelane, lawsonite)Greenschist facies: muscovite chlorite quartz (biotite, alkali feldspar, chloritoid, paragonite, albite, spessartine)Amphibolite facies: muscovite biotite quartz (garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite, cordierite, chlorite, plagioclase, alkali feldspar)Granulite facies: alkali feldspar plagioclase sillimanite quartz (biotite, garnet, kyanite, cordierite, orthopyroxene, spinel, corundum, sapphirine)Blueschist facies: phengite chlorite quartz (albite, jadeite, lawsonite, garnet, chloritoid, paragonite)Eclogite facies: phengite garnet quartz Mafic rocks (basalt, gabbro, diorite, tonalite etc.) yield a different set of minerals at the same P/T conditions, as follows: Zeolite facies: zeolite chlorite albite quartz (prehnite, analcime, pumpellyite)Prehnite-pumpellyite facies: prehnite pumpellyite chlorite albite quartz (actinolite, stilpnomelane, lawsonite)Greenschist facies: chlorite epidote albite (actinolite, biotite)Amphibolite facies: plagioclase hornblende (epidote, garnet, orthoamphibole, cummingtonite)Granulite facies: orthopyroxene plagioclase (clinopyroxene, hornblende, garnet)Blueschist facies: glaucophane/crossite lawsonite/epidote (pumpellyite, chlorite, garnet, albite, aragonite, phengite, chloritoid, paragonite)Eclogite facies: omphacite garnet rutile Ultramafic rocks (pyroxenite, peridotite etc.) have their own version of these facies: Zeolite facies: lizardite/chrysotile brucite magnetite (chlorite, carbonate)Prehnite-pumpellyite facies: lizardite/chrysotile brucite magnetite (antigorite, chlorite, carbonate, talc, diopside)Greenschist facies: antigorite diopside magnetite (chlorite, brucite, olivine, talc, carbonate)Amphibolite facies: olivine tremolite (antigorite, talc, anthopyllite, cummingtonite, enstatite)Granulite facies: olivine diopside enstatite (spinel, plagioclase)Blueschist facies: antigorite olivine magnetite (chlorite, brucite, talc, diopside)Eclogite facies: olivine Pronunciation: metamorphic FAY-sees or FAY-shees Also Known As: metamorphic grade (partial synonym)

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Basswood Tree Description and Pruning Info

Basswood Tree Description and Pruning Info Introduction to the Basswood Tree Basswood, also known as American Linden is a large native North American tree that can grow more than 80 feet tall. In addition to being a majestic tree in the landscape, basswood is a soft, light wood and prized for hand carvings and making baskets. Native American basswood is found on rich, wet soils of the central and eastern United States. In the landscape, is a very beautiful and large tree with a majestic oval canopy mounted on a tall, straight trunk. Mid-summer brings abundant clusters of aromatic, yellow blooms which attract bees who make a prized honey - the tree is often fondly called the honey or bee tree. Taxonomy and Species Range The scientific name of basswood is Tilia americana and is pronounced TILL-ee-uh uh-mair-ih-KAY-nuh. Common names include American basswood, American linden and bee-tree and the tree is a member of the plant family Tiliaceae. Basswood grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8 and is native to North America. The tree is often used as a hedge but only in large tree lawns. It grows rapidly, is very large and needs plenty of space. The tree makes an excellent landscape planting with limited tolerance to urban conditions depending on the cultivar. It is a perfect shade tree and can be used as a residential street tree. American Linden Cultivars There are several great cultivars of American linden including ‘Redmond’, ‘Fastigiata’ and ‘Legend’. The cultivar Tilia americana ‘Redmond’ grows 75 feet tall, has a beautiful pyramidal shape and is drought-tolerant. Tilia americana ‘Fastigiata’ is more narrow in shape with fragrant yellow flowers. Tilia americana ‘Legend’ is a hearty tree with resistant to leaf rust. The tree shape is pyramidal, grows with a single, straight trunk, and with upright, well-spaced branches. All of these cultivars are great as specimens for large lawns and along private drives and public streets. Pests of Basswood Insects: aphids are notorious pests on basswood but will not kill a healthy tree. Aphids produce a sticky substance called honeydew which then introduces a dark sooty mold that will cover objects under the tree including parked vehicles and lawn furniture. Other attacking insects include bark borers, walnut lace bug, Basswood leaf miner, scales and Linden mite can all be troublesome problems. Disease: Leaf rust is a major defoliator of basswood but some cultivars are resistant. Other diseases that infect basswood are Anthracnose, canker, leaf spots, powdery mildew, and verticillium wilt. Basswood Description: Basswood in the landscape grows to a height of 50 to 80 feet, depending on tree variety and site conditions. The trees crown spread is 35 to 50 feet and the canopy is typically symmetrical with a regular, smooth outline. Individual crown forms are consistent with an oval to pyramidal canopy shape. Crown density is tight and the trees growth rate is medium to rapid, depending on the site condition. Basswood Trunk and Branches Basswood branches droop as the tree grows and do require some pruning. If you have regular walking and vehicular traffic, a pruning may need to be done for clearance beneath the canopy. The tree form is not particularly showy but maintains a pleasing symmetry and should be grown with one single trunk to maturity. Basswood Leaf Botanics Leaf arrangement: alternateLeaf type: simpleLeaf margin: serrateLeaf shape: cordate; ovateLeaf venation: pinnateLeaf type and persistence: deciduousLeaf blade length: 4 to 8 inchesLeaf color: greenFall color: yellowFall characteristic: not showy I explain some of these terms in my Botanical Glossary... Necessary Site Conditions The native American basswood grows best on moist, fertile soils where those soils are acid or slightly alkaline. The tree likes to grow in full sun or partial shade and is more shade-tolerant than oaks and hickories. The leaves will show some wilting and scorching after a long dry season, but the tree appears fine the following year. The tree is often found growing along creeks and streams but will take short periods of drought. The trees favorite habitat is on moist sites. Pruning Basswood American linden grows into a very large tree and demands space to develop properly. Naturally occurring trees need no pruning but branches on landscape specimens should be spaced by pruning along the trunk to allow for development to maturity. Removing branches with weak crotches and embedded bark is advised even though the wood is flexible and will not often break from the trunk. Plant basswood as a specimen or shade tree only on property where there is plenty of area available for root expansion. Remember to remove basal sprouts that are prone to grow off the base of the trunk.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Movie Girl Interrupted Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Girl Interrupted - Movie Review Example Girl Interrupted is a story told by Suzanna Kay son who has been on a locked psyche unit for females for almost two years. She is a bright teenager of 18 when she signs herself in on the suggestion of a family friend and psychiatrist. The story is set in the 60's when it was truly an embarrassment to have this kind of illness and Suzanna goes to the hospital alone, in the back of a cab. Suzanna has already had many problems in her life. She does not get along with her parents, she has had an affair with a high school teacher and contrary to what was alright for a girl in that day and age, she has decided to "write". The ward she is on seems almost to be a dorm. There are several other young women there, some are silly and some are angry but is this not the same elsewhere The truth of the situation occurs when any small thing changes to set off these women and then chaos erupts and everyone seems different than they did just a few minutes before. The head nurse is Whoopie Goldberg and she has previously worked for a State institution and believes this job is a "piece of cake" in comparison. She, however, has a great deal of compassion for these women though she also runs the unit with a needed strong hand. Treatment for misbehaving is an ice bath and many of the nurses use the "there is not going to be any trouble is there" to be sure the patients take their medications etc. There is also, of course, four point restraints. Not to many of these kinds of treatments are used today but seclusion rooms are still prominent on most lock ups. These rooms are padded on all four walls, the ceiling and the floor and you are placed there to do away with you hostility. Suzanna is diagnosed by her psychiatrist as a borderline personality disorder In today's DSM IV her symptoms would seem to match this disorder which is Borderlin epersonality disorder, 301.83. It actually is difficult to see Suzanna as having any psychiatric disorder and she is the kind of patient that is difficult to miss when admitted with problems to the medical surgical floor. Suzanna took a bottle of aspirin and drank an bottle of alcohol but for most of the movies states it was an accident and she did not mean to kill herself, "she had a headache." DSMIV lists the main symptoms of personality disorder as revolving around unstable relationships, a poor negative sense of self, inconsistent moods, and significant impulsivity. They have an intense fear of abandonment and usually push people away so they cannot be abandoned. They become overly involved and very attached to various people (DSM IV) Suzanna does meet all of these symptoms and like she says it is a wavy line because she seems normal. We would not admit her to a locked psyche unit today but we might regularly run into her in clinics and other healthcare facilities and as nurses, have a need to understand that this can be a problem personality and may be why these people are alone. The prognosis here is good if they attend treatment and begin to understand that they are not "crazy" but need to understand their disease. Suzanna does end up being able to go home and has gained a great insight not only into her own illness but into the illnesses of so many of the other patients on the unit. Lisa, on the other hand is what in the days the movie was placed would have

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Financial Case Study Analysis and Excel Work Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Financial Analysis and Excel Work - Case Study Example There are some factors that should be considered with regards to the profitability, the future inflation rates and the competitors in the market. The company should ensure that before it sells out, the profitability issue will be included in the part of goodwill which will add on the valuation price. The workers of the company are underpaid so as to cut on costs of the company. That may not be the trend in the future because the workers may form a labor union that will fight for their rights. That means that the profits will reduce in the future if the workers demand for a pay rise. The person or persons who are interested in the purchase of the company should therefore consider that fact because it will affect the future profitability of the company. The sales volume has increased as a result of as number of factors. The sales volume has increased because of the great advertising skills that have lead to brand loyal for the company. The brand loyal usually makes repeat purchase and that adds on the sales volume and profitability of the company. The sales volume has also increased as a result of the diversification of the company. Therefore, in the valuation of the company, the investment that has been made in the advertising and diversification of the operations should be considered. The company should ensure that such money ploughed in such ventures is recovered. The costs of the company are increasing at a reducing rate over the years. That shows that the efficiency of the company has been increasing over the years. The efficiency may be as a result of improved processes, improved equipment and motivated employees. All the above factors happen at a cost and that cost should be considered in the valuation of the business. The valuation should ensure that the company does not result at a loss. The brand loyal adds on the profitability of the company. That shows that the company has a good reputation among the customers. The

Friday, January 24, 2020

Medical Revolutions :: essays research papers

The Civil War started as a picnic and ended in compassion, but in between were four hideous years of twisted flesh, burning fevers, rampant pus, and oozing raw stumps. Never before had America faced even a hint of such agony and the way it responded to the occasion is fascinating history. In a very real sense the War Between the States brought forth a medical revolution and, perhaps above all, an awareness of public health. The terrible, swift scalpel became less terrible: and the dank, dirty, dingy pesthouse evolved into a pavilion of hope. Nursing, dentistry, and pharmacy also experienced a renaissance and the art and science of military medicine was projected into the future. The man of medicine who served in the Civil War was, whether he liked it or not, first and foremost a surgeon and always referred to as such. Though his first knife may well have been government issued, he learned the tricks of the trade in due course and sometimes became quite an expert. â€Å"Do your best† was the general idea, and most surgeons did, or at least tried. Nearly all the older doctors had received their education on an apprenticeship basis but the younger men, those who made up the bulk of the army surgeons, usually held a medical school diploma along with an office internship. Little attention was paid to clinical instruction, and in most cases the laboratory was all but forgotten. Further, stethoscopes, thermometers, syringes, and the like were widely used in Europe while many doctors here at home had never seen them let alone used them. In regard to ability and competence, there is no reason to believe the doctors in the North and the South differed in any significant way. While the North was home to more prestigious medical institutions, the South was learning to become less dependent on the North in this area at the outbreak of the war. A number of schools became established. Whether good, bad, or indifferent, the doctors were needed and just about every device was tried to keep up supply, a task compounded by frequent absenteeism. This situation was by no means peculiar to the medical people, for many others in the Civil War had the habit of picking up their blankets and heading back to the old homestead. This is exactly the case for Inman in the novel, Cold Mountain, by Carles Frazier.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Lillian D. Wald

Dear Mr. President, To keep the country running smoothly, the citizens must participate in it. If we, the citizens of the United States, don’t do our part, the government will have full reign over OUR society. Essentially meaning that would no longer be a democracy. That is something that we Americans pride ourselves on, being a democracy. We must ensure that we maintain and keep the rights and freedoms that we have. The purpose of this letter is to ask you to consider declaring a new holiday in the name of Lillian Wald.This day wouldn’t just be to recognize her as a person and all of her accomplishments, but what her accomplishments really were- Civil Rights. Lillian Wald’s achievements stretched from the health field to civil rights for children. Her feats have shed a new light on the American society, inspiring to us all. Lillian Wald was a nurse, social worker, public health official, teacher, author, editor, publisher, and most importantly a civil rights act ivist for peace, women, children, the sick, and many others.She had such an unselfish devotion to humanity, which ultimately made her great. It all started when Wald met a young nurse who inspired her to follow in her footsteps. At the age of 22 she had graduated nursing school and enrolled in the Women’s Medical College to begin studying to become a doctor. During her time in college, she managed to be a volunteer nurse for the poor and less fortunate in New York’s lower east side. While volunteering, Wald saw the need for change. Immediately dropping out of med school, she moved closer to the needy.In 1893 Wald created the Henry Street Settlement. Starting off with the help of 10 nurses, she created a small empire that would expand to 250 nurses that treated 1300 patients per day by 1916. All of this needed some kind of funding. Well Wald took care of that with fund raising and volunteer donations. Also made it a point to make all of this racially integrated. Lillian Wald, with the help of some volunteers, treated and cared for the poor and educated people about health, hygiene, and protecting themselves from diseases. But that’s not all.She had now moved her sights to the New York Board of Education. She had made it a goal to make it mandatory to put a nurse in every school, everyday. Of course, that goal had been accomplished, following it by protecting children further by ensuring that their civil rights had not been forgotten. From children she went to help women, and protecting them from being forced into almost slave labor conditions, making sure divorced women weren’t left without money, and giving them the right to birth control. Did she stop there? Not if her name was Lillian Wald!She was also an anti-war activist and fought whole heartedly for peace. But after those efforts went amiss, she didn’t hesitate to do her part and become the Chairmen for the committee on Community Nursing of the American Red Cross. Major industries were her next target, making sure to protect workers with health inspections, and also making sure a nurse was on site at most job sites and factories. Of course all of this hadn’t gone unrecognized; she had been named in the New York Times 12 greatest living American women in 1922.Also she had received the Lincoln Medallion and proclaimed and outstanding citizen of New York. But all of this was a long time ago, and I’m afraid people have forgotten what she has done, which calls for a reminder. Lillian Wald once said â€Å"We have found, that the things which make men alike are finer and stronger than the things which make them different, and that the vision which long since proclaimed the interdependence and the kinship of mankind was farsighted and is true. †She began her journey to achieve her dreams in 1893 when she came across a situation that needed attention now. Her answer to this problem served as an essential stepping stone to all of her li fe’s accomplishments that in time spanned to an international scale. Without her, health care amongst many other things wouldn’t be where they are today. Considering this information, I ask you Mr. President, to make a new national holiday to be recognized in her name, with the thought of our Civil Rights that she made sure we had.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Gender Inequality (Feminism Movement) - 2694 Words

Gender Inequality (Feminism Movement) Western female thought through the centuries has identified the relationship between patriarchy and gender as crucial to the women’s subordinate position. For two hundred years, patriarchy precluded women from having a legal or political identity and the legislation and attitudes supporting this provided the model for slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries suffrage campaigners succeeded in securing some legal and political rights for women in the UK. By the middle of the 20th century, the emphasis had shifted from suffrage to social and economic equality in the public and private sphere and the women’s movement that sprung up during the 1960s began to argue that women were oppressed by†¦show more content†¦Power in institutions is used collectively rather than individually, and the segregationist strategy pursued in the public arena maintains the exclusionary strategy used in private that in turn supports the segregationist strategy used in public. Yet, the institution can only pursue its segregationist strategy because the individual patriarch subordinates the individual women daily. Walby’s description of patriarchal structure looks powerful where there are fewer variables, e.g., when women and men seem to share the privilege of being exploited equally as a labor force working equal hours for equal pay in equal conditions (Haug, 1998). Haug (1998) cites research from East Germany which allows her to calculate that women do 4 hours and 41 minutes of domestic labor against men’s 2 hours 38 minutes. Men split their extra two hours between leisure time and paid employment. She asks if it is a realistic possibility that patriarchy could be so completely and comprehensively asserted in as little as two hours a day. Haug does not answer this question (perhaps it is rhetorical) but I think that Walby’s (1990) theory of patriarchy is so powerful because it can reveal the answer to questions like this. Walbyâ€⠄¢s theory stands because she shows that the power of patriarchy is asserted in both the privateShow MoreRelatedFeminism And The Third Wave Of Feminism1212 Words   |  5 Pageshas advanced so has the definition of feminism. In 2017 feminism means something completely different than what it did in the days of women s suffrage. No longer is feminism working on allowing women just to vote. 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